Python on Android


  • Python 2.7 and 3.5 can be used on Android using CrystaX NDK. It uses patches on Python.
  • Python 3.6 (from mostly work on Android API 24 without further patches, but need recipes to be built and these recipes are not standardized yet.
  • The goal is to get a full Android API 24 support for Python 3.7 using a standard build recipe; Android buildbot using qemu.

Xavier’s “Android support” document (Decembre 2017):

BeeWare VOC

A transpiler that converts Python bytecode into Java bytecode.

In 2019, BeeWare was awarded by the PSF a $50,000 grant to help improve Python on Android. Check out their blog and call for contractors here:

See also

Android CI for Python

pmpp’s plan: “Test on VMs with Android 4.4 (arm/i386) and Android 7 or 8 (all platforms)”.


  • Xavier de Gaye: was given push privileges on June 3, 2016 on the recommendation of Victor Stinner to pursue its work on porting Python on Android.
  • Chih-Hsuan Yen aka yan12125
  • Paul Peny aka pmpp: Panda3D contributor, wants to “port” Panda3D on Android (especially Python binding of Panda3D)


Android is not the common “Linux” system, only the Linux kernel is shared, everything else is different:

  • Kernel: Linux
  • libc: Bionic
  • Android SDK
  • NDK: toolchain used for cross-compilation, compiler, tools, headers and libraries
  • Different filesystem layout and device mapper:
    • /system/bin/sh: Shell
    • /system/lib/ Bionic libc

The Android API version combines Linux kernel and bionic versions.


C++ stdlib has a working localeconv()!? Example:

#include <locale>

using namespace std;

static char decimal_point;
static char thousands_sep;
static lconv lc_cache ;

extern "C" {
    struct lconv *localeconv(void){
        decimal_point = std::use_facet<std::numpunct<char> >(std::locale(std::setlocale(LC_ALL, NULL))).decimal_point();
        lc_cache.decimal_point = &decimal_point;

        thousands_sep = std::use_facet<std::numpunct<char> >(std::locale(std::setlocale(LC_ALL, NULL))).thousands_sep();
        lc_cache.thousands_sep = &thousands_sep ;

        return &lc_cache;

Android, NDK and API versions

Android versions :

Android version Release API versions
Android 7 (Nougat) 2016-08 24-25
Android 6 (Marshmallow) 2015-10 23
Android 5 (Lollipop) 2014-11 21-22
Android 4.4 (Kitkat) 2013-10 19-20

See also

Supported API

  • Python 3.7 currently targets API 21+ (but may have a partial support of API 19+)
  • Unity supports API 16+
  • Kivy supports API 19+
  • Termux layer support python3.6+ and API 21+

Cheap devices only support old versions of Android. Cheap devices allow developers to work on Android without having to buy expensive devices just for this platforms.

XXX Python 3.7 should have a basic API 19+ support: fix compilation, but it’s ok if some tests fail. Just push upstream existing patches for API 19.

API 19

  • Basically, the full locale API is broken
  • mmap() works but is not exported in libc headers


XXX what is NDK? :-)

NDK 14b is the first release to use “Unified headers”.

Python on Android

  • A lot of changes merged since 2016
  • Python uses UTF-8 as its “filesystem encoding” and uses directly Python’s codec rather than mbstowcs() and wcstombs()
  • Python 3.7 added sys.getandroidapilevel(): API level used to build Python, not the runtime API version. sys.getandroidapilevel() mostly exists to implement the test “is Python running on Android?”.

XXX should we change sys.platform from “linux” to “android” on Android?

Patches for API 19:

Build system and patches for API 21:

Build Python for Android

Stdlib packed into a ZIP file.


Xavier’s favorite option.

Drawback: pip cannot be used to install C extensions (see pip).

Build Python on Android

pmpp’s favorite option.

Hackish option

pmpp’s second choice.

  • Link Python to a static libc on Linux using Android linker
  • Extract object files from libpython.a and link again on Android

Drawback: broken DNS resolution.

Devices to develop Python on Android?


  • Raspberry PI 3: arm64

Software (Android):

  • Lineage (ex-cyanogen)
  • Android TV

APK package

Problem to solve for in apk use (standard android application, main is java based but embed libpython via Java native interface and a thread):

  • must be unversionned and be located in <apkroot>/lib
  • for cross-compiling and linking against, its soname must be set or set(IMPORTED_NO_SONAME ON) must be used in cmake, not ndk-build, linking would be broken.

Possible fix, apply patchelf after compilation:

TTY on Android?

  • Python REPL
  • ncurses

See Terminal Emulator for Android (Google Play).

dlopen() RTLD_BIND_NOW

Bionic dlopen() doesn’t support RTDL_LAZY. Dependencies must be loaded explicitly!

pip, MACHDEP, sysconfig

  • proposes to change sys.platform from “linux” to “android”, but keep MACHDEP=”linux”.
  • sysconfig: sysconfig data filename generated by Makefile using MACHDEP. Issue on cross-compilation. sysconfig uses sys.platform to recreate the module name at runtime.

If Python was cross-compiled, pip fails to build C extensions. The C compiler fails to locate Python header files.


SELinux is enforced on arm64 since Android 5 (Lollipop).

CrystaX NDK

In short, CrystaX NDK is closer to a regular Linux glibc.

CrystaX NDK is a drop-in replacement for Google’s NDK. Following are the main goals of CrystaX NDK:

  • Better standard compatibility
  • Easy porting of existing code to Android
  • New features for Android native development

It provides Python 2.7 and Python 3.5, Python compiled with patches to support Android.

The Kivy project uses the Python of CrystaX. Kivy updated CrystaX Python get to Python 3.6:


Cross-compilation is used to target:

  • Android on ARM and ARM64
  • Android x86 and amd64.
  • Android mips, but deprecated on newer toolchains.
  • Intel 32-bit for Ubuntu multiarch: compilation done from x86-64 (64 bit) to x86 (32 bit)
  • can be used for WASM (emscripten), and could be used for WASI (clang) targets.

Python stdlib C extensions are by default cross compiled as dynamic libraries, but they can’t be garanteed to load because:

Third party C extensions have the same problem. Possible fix: apply patchelf after compilation, change filenames (avoiding collisions!), set correct soname, move files in same folder for android sdk builder (gradle) to pick

Cross-compiling third party C extension with setuptools/pip may need to set _PYTHON_SYSCONFIGDATA_NAME environment variable.

See also

  • Python Everywhere? talk by Russell Keith-magee about embedding Python at PyCon Thailand 2019